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1 They Want You to Be Overwhelmed Is genetically engineered food dangerous? Many people seem to think it is.In the past five years, companies have submitted more than 27,000 products to the Non-GMO Project, which certifies goods that are free of genetically modified organisms.
Last year, sales of such products nearly tripled 9 Oct 2017 - Amatey Doku, NUS vice-president for higher education, said some students were turning to essay mills because the pressure to get the highest .Last year, sales of such products nearly tripled.
Whole Foods will soon require labels on all GMOs in its stores.Abbott, the company that makes Similac baby formula, has created a non-GMO version to give parents “peace of mind.Some environmentalists and public interest groups want to go further How to purchase a essay gm food 1 hour American Academic double spaced.Some environmentalists and public interest groups want to go further.Hundreds of organizations, including Consumers Union, Friends of the Earth, Physicians for Social Responsibility, the Center for Food Safety, and the Union of Concerned Scientists, are demanding “mandatory labeling of genetically engineered foods camin.ir/dissertation/should-i-get-custom-calculus-dissertation-platinum-39-pages-10725-words-academic.Hundreds of organizations, including Consumers Union, Friends of the Earth, Physicians for Social Responsibility, the Center for Food Safety, and the Union of Concerned Scientists, are demanding “mandatory labeling of genetically engineered foods.” Since 2013, Vermont, Maine, and Connecticut have passed laws to require GMO labels camin.ir/dissertation/should-i-get-custom-calculus-dissertation-platinum-39-pages-10725-words-academic.” Since 2013, Vermont, Maine, and Connecticut have passed laws to require GMO labels.Bt sprays, unlike Bt crops, include live bacteria, which can multiply in food.
Several years ago researchers examined vegetables for sale in Denmark.They found 23 strains of Bt identical to the kind used in commercial sprays.In China a similar study of milk, ice cream, and green tea beverages found 19 Bt strains, five of them identical to the kind used in sprays.In Canada nasal swabs of people living inside and outside zones where Bt was being applied found the bacteria in 17 percent of samples taken before crops were sprayed, as well as 36 percent to 47 percent of samples taken afterward.Nobody monitors how much Bt is applied worldwide.
Last fall the Wall Street Journal estimated that annual sales of biopesticides were roughly $2 billion.Bt has been said to account for 57 percent to 90 percent of that market.In 2001, Bt was reportedly applied in the U.to more than 40 percent of tomatoes and 60 percent of brassica crops, which include broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage.
Since then, biopesticide sales have risen substantially.In Europe the annual growth rate since 2000 has been nearly 17 percent.Every market analysis predicts that biopesticides will grow at a much faster rate than the overall insecticide market, in part because governments are promoting them.The Journal projects that by 2020, 10 percent of global pesticide sales will be Bt and other biological formulas.One result of this paradox—GMOs under attack, while biopesticides flourish—is that you can think you’re eating less Bt, when in fact you’re eating more.
According to a 2014 congressional research report, Germany has some of the world’s strictest GMO policies.It requires labels, discourages GMO cultivation, and has prohibited even some crops approved by the European Union.data show that during the most recent 10-year reporting period, for every 1,000 hectares of arable German land, an annual average of 125 metric tons of biological and botanical pesticides (the category that includes Bt) were sold for agricultural use in crops and seeds.That works out to more than 100 pounds per acre per year.By comparison, no Bt corn variety produces more than 4 pounds of toxin per acre.And guess who’s selling all that Bt: the same companies Greenpeace condemns for peddling chemical pesticides and GMOs.Since 2012 the top four companies on Greenpeace’s list of global pesticide villains—Monsanto, Syngenta, Bayer, and BASF—have spent about $2 billion to move into the biopesticide market.
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Another agrochemical giant, DuPont, has invested $6 billion.If you’re boycotting GMOs or buying organic to escape Bt and fight corporate agriculture, think again.Anti-GMO zealots refuse to face the truth about Bt How is evidence being used to support the argument? As you read the essay try to think what feedback you would give for the essay and compare this with the .Anti-GMO zealots refuse to face the truth about Bt.
Two years ago the Organic Consumers Association and its allied website GreenMedInfo published the headline “New Study Links GMO Food to Leukemia.
” Today that headline remains uncorrected, even though the study was done with Bt spore crystals, which are components of Bt spray, not Bt crops.Most of what was fed to the test animals wasn’t Bt toxin, and the write-up, for undisclosed reasons, was withdrawn from an established journal and published instead in a journal that had never before existed 15 Jul 2015 - Anti-GMO groups want to label all genetically engineered food. They say this will inform you about the risks of buying and eating such products..Most of what was fed to the test animals wasn’t Bt toxin, and the write-up, for undisclosed reasons, was withdrawn from an established journal and published instead in a journal that had never before existed.) Meanwhile, last year, Greenpeace published a catalog of “exemplary” agriculture, in which it celebrated a Spanish farm where “the use of Bacillus thuringiensis is being expanded to a greater cultivated surface area.” Both organizations encourage you to buy organic, neglecting to mention the dozens of Bt insecticides approved for use in organic agriculture.
They won’t tell you whether there’s Bt in your food.They’ll only give you the illusion that you’ve escaped it.That’s one lesson of the Non-GMO Project, whose voluntary labels purport to give you an “informed choice” about what’s in your food.Earlier this year, Slate interns Natania Levy and Greer Prettyman contacted the manufacturers of 15 corn products bearing the Non-GMO Project label.
They asked each company whether its product included any ingredients sprayed with biopesticides.Two told us, falsely, that their organic certification meant they didn’t use pesticides or anything that could be harmful.One sent us weasel words and repeated them when we pressed for a clearer answer.Another told us it adhered to legal limits.
None of the manufacturers could give us a clear assurance that its product hadn’t been exposed to Bt.That’s the fundamental flaw in the anti-GMO movement.When you push past its dogmas and examine the evidence, you realize that the movement’s fixation on genetic engineering has been an enormous mistake.
The principles it claims to stand for—environmental protection, public health, community agriculture—are better served by considering the facts of each case than by treating GMOs, categorically, as a proxy for all that’s wrong with the world.That’s the truth, in all its messy complexity.4 A Humanitarian Project Zealots Hate Right now, across the world, a quarter of a billion preschool-age children are suffering from vitamin A deficiency.Every year, 250,000 to 500,000 of these kids go blind.Within a year, half of the blinded children will die.Much of the affliction is in Southeast Asia, where people rely on rice for their nutrition.Rice doesn’t have enough beta carotene—the compound that, when digested, produces vitamin A.
Twenty-five years ago, a team of scientists, led by Ingo Potrykus of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, set out to solve this problem.Their plan was to engineer a new kind of rice that would make beta carotene.But to Potrykus it made more sense than what some governments were already doing: giving each person two high-dose vitamin A pills a year.Wouldn’t it be smarter to embed beta carotene in the region’s staple crop? That way, people could grow the nutrient and eat it every day, instead of relying on occasional handouts.
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It would use biotechnology to prevent suffering, disability, and death.In 1999, Potrykus and his colleagues achieved their first breakthrough.By transferring genes from daffodils and bacteria, they created the world’s first beta carotene rice 5 Jan 2008 - Where are the green shoots that will get us out of the global and no more than what all major businesses and western governments are now saying. opportunity on trade, GM crops, globalisation and animal diseases. with environmental problems - including the Amazon, the Arctic and the Danube..By transferring genes from daffodils and bacteria, they created the world’s first beta carotene rice.
The yellow grains became known as “Golden Rice.
” President Clinton celebrated the achievement and urged GMO skeptics to do the same.He acknowledged that genetic engineering “tends to be treated as an issue of the interest of the agribusiness companies, and earning big profits, against food safety Best websites to write a college essay gm food confidentially Business Doctoral Custom writing 3 hours.He acknowledged that genetic engineering “tends to be treated as an issue of the interest of the agribusiness companies, and earning big profits, against food safety.” But in the case of vitamin A deficiency, the greater risk to health lay in doing nothing.“If we could get more of this Golden Rice … out to the develop ing world,” said Clinton, “it could save 40,000 lives a day.This humanitarian project undermined their usual objections to genetic engineering.In 2001, Benedikt Haerlin, Greenpeace’s anti-GMO coordinator, appeared with Potrykus at a press conference in France.Haerlin conceded that Golden Rice served “a good purpose” and posed “a moral challenge to our position.” Greenpeace couldn’t dismiss the rice as poison.So it opposed the project on technical grounds: Golden Rice didn’t produce enough beta carotene.
The better approach, according to biotechnology critics, was to help people cultivate home gardens full of beans, pumpkins, and other crops rich in Vitamin A.Where that wasn’t feasible or sufficient, Greenpeace recommended supplementation (distributing vitamin A pills) or food fortification, by mixing vitamin A into centrally processed ingredients such as sugar, flour, and margarine.At the time, the rice didn’t provide enough beta carotene to cure vitamin A deficiency.Gordon Conway, the president of the Rockefeller Foundation, which was funding the project, explained some of the difficulties in a 2001 letter to Greenpeace: Complete balanced diets are the best solution, but the poorer families are, the less likely it is that their children will receive a balanced diet and the more likely they will be dependent on cheap food staples such as rice.This is particularly true in the dry seasons when fruits and vegetables are in short supply and expensive.Conway echoed the skepticism of UNICEF nutritionists, who doubted that plants native to the afflicted countries could deliver enough digestible beta carotene.To Potrykus, the notion of home gardens for everyone— Let them eat carrot cake—reeked of Western ignorance.“There are hundreds of millions of landless poor,” Potrykus pointed out.
“They don’t have a house to lean the fruit tree against.” Potrykus and Conway wanted to try everything to alleviate vitamin A deficiency: diversification, fortification, supplementation, and Golden Rice.They called Golden Rice a “Trojan horse” for genetic engineering.They doubled down on their double standards.
They claimed that people in the afflicted countries wouldn’t eat yellow rice, yet somehow could be taught to grow unfamiliar vegetables.They portrayed Golden Rice as a financial scheme, but then—after Potrykus made clear that it would be given to poor farmers for free—objected that free distribution would lead to genetic contamination of local crops.Some anti-GMO groups said the rice should be abandoned because it was tied up in 70 patents.Others said the claim of 70 patents was a fiction devised by the project’s leaders to justify their collaboration with AstraZeneca, a global corporation.
While critics tried to block the project, Potrykus and his colleagues worked to improve the rice.
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By 2003 they had developed plants with eight times as much beta carotene as the original version.In 2005 they unveiled a line that had 20 times as much beta carotene as the original.GMO critics could no longer dismiss Golden Rice as inadequate Browse through our free business essays, perfect for any student studying on a Amazon.com is an online-retailer and cloud-computing company Introduction In order to answer the 3 main question stated bellow I will make an internal the new launch of a food product that is based keeping the UK market as a target..GMO critics could no longer dismiss Golden Rice as inadequate.
Now that the rice produced plenty of beta carotene, anti-GMO activists claimed that beta carotene and vitamin A were dangerous.
In 2001, Friends of the Earth had scoffed that Golden Rice would “do little to ameliorate VAD vitamin A deficiency because it produces so little beta-carotene.” By November 2004 the group had changed its tune.Crops that yielded beta carotene could “cause direct toxicity or abnormal embryonic development,” it asserted camin.ir/homework/asian-literature.php.Crops that yielded beta carotene could “cause direct toxicity or abnormal embryonic development,” it asserted.Another anti-GMO lobby, the Institute of Science in Society, documented its own shift in a 2006 report: ISIS critically reviewed golden rice in 2000 camin.ir/homework/asian-literature.php.Another anti-GMO lobby, the Institute of Science in Society, documented its own shift in a 2006 report: ISIS critically reviewed golden rice in 2000.Among the observations was that the rice produced too little beta-carotene to relieve the existing dietary deficiency.
Since then, golden rice strains have been improved, but still fall short of relieving dietary deficiency.On the other hand, increasing the level of beta-carotene may cause vitamin A overdose to those whose diets provide adequate amounts of the vitamin.In fact, both vitamin A deficiency and supplementation may cause birth defects.To support the new alarmism, David Schubert, an anti-GMO activist and neurobiologist at the Salk Institute, drafted a paper on the ostensible perils of boosting vitamin A.In 2008 he got it published in the Journal of Medicinal Food.
In the article he noted that beta carotene and dozens of related compounds, known as carotenoids, could produce other compounds, called retinoids, which included vitamin A.He declared that all retinoids “are likely to be teratogenic”—prone to causing birth defects—and, therefore, “extensive safety testing should be required before the introduction of golden rice.” David Schubert gave opponents of Golden Rice what they needed: the illusion of scientific support.Schubert systematically distorted the evidence.To suggest that Golden Rice might be toxic, he cited a study that had been reported in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1994.
Schubert said the study found that “smokers who supplemented their diet with beta-carotene had an increased risk of lung cancer.” He neglected to mention that the daily beta carotene dose administered in the study was the equivalent of roughly 10 to 20 bowls of Golden Rice.He also failed to quote the rest of the paper, which emphasized that in general, beta carotene was actually associated with a lower risk of lung cancer.Furthermore, he claimed that a 2004 report by the National Research Council said genetic engineering had “a higher probability of producing unanticipated changes than some genetic modification methods.” In reality, the NRC report said genetic engineering has a higher probability of producing unanticipated changes than some genetic modification methods, such as narrow crosses, and a lower probability than others, such as radiation mutagenesis.
Therefore, the nature of the compositional change merits greater consideration than the method used to achieve the change.By omitting the second half of the sentence—“and a lower probability than others”—Schubert made the NRC report appear to raise alarms about GMOs, when in fact the report had explained why alarmism about GMOs was wrongheaded.Schubert gave opponents of Golden Rice what they needed: the illusion of scientific support.The movement’s new position, as expressed by Ban GM Food, was that “Golden Rice is engineered to overproduce beta carotene, and studies show that some retinoids derived from beta carotene are toxic and cause birth defects.
” But the new position, like the old one, relied on double standards.To begin with, every green plant produces carotenoids.
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For years, anti-GMO groups had argued that instead of eating Golden Rice, people should grow other plants rich in beta carotene.They had also encouraged the use of selective breeding to increase carotenoid levels.If carotenoids were toxic, wouldn’t these plants deliver the same poison? GMO critics didn’t seem to care how much beta carotene people ate, as long as the food wasn’t genetically engineered Genetically modified food controversies Wikipedia.
If carotenoids were toxic, wouldn’t these plants deliver the same poison? GMO critics didn’t seem to care how much beta carotene people ate, as long as the food wasn’t genetically engineered.
They demanded extra safety tests on Golden Rice, on the grounds that “large doses of beta-carotene can have negative health effects.” But they shrugged off such vigilance in the case of home gardens, saying it was “not necessary to count the amount” of each vitamin consumed.They also advocated the mass administration of vitamin A through high-dose capsules and chemical manipulation of the food supply.By their own alarmist standards—which, fortunately, were unwarranted—this would have been reckless.The human body derives from beta carotene sources, such as Golden Rice, only as much vitamin A as it needs.
In the context of GMOs, Greenpeace claimed to stand for freedom.Its 2009 statement “Hands off our rice!” said “keeping rice GE-free” was an issue of “consumer choice” and “human rights.” The statement complained that GE rice was “controlled by multinational corporations and governments” and “severely limits the choice of food we can eat.” But as long as GMOs weren’t involved, Greenpeace was all for corporate and government control.It lauded the distribution of vitamin A and beta carotene capsules in “mass immunization campaigns.
” It praised health officials and food-processing companies for putting vitamin A and beta carotene in sugar, margarine, and biscuits.It suggested that governments could “make fortification compulsory.” In the Philippines, where Greenpeace was fighting to block field trials of Golden Rice, its hypocrisy was egregious.“It is irresponsible to impose GE 'Golden' rice on people if it goes against their religious beliefs, cultural heritage and sense of identity, or simply because they do not want it,” Greenpeace declared.
But just below that pronouncement, Greenpeace recommended “vitamin A supplementation and vitamin fortification of foods as successfully implemented in the Philippines.
” Under Philippine law, beta carotene and vitamin A had to be added to sugar, flour, and cooking oil prior to distribution.The government administered capsules to preschoolers twice a year, and to some pregnant women for 28 consecutive days.If Greenpeace seriously believed that retinoids caused birth defects and should be a matter of personal choice, it would never have endorsed these programs.Despite this, the anti-GMO lobby went ballistic when scientists fed Golden Rice to 24 children during clinical trials in China.The trials, conducted in 2008, were designed to measure how much vitamin A the rice could generate in people who suffered from vitamin A deficiency.
One group of kids was given Golden Rice, a second group was given beta carotene capsules, and a third was given spinach.The researchers found that a single serving of Golden Rice, cooked from 50 grams of grains, could supply 60 percent of a child’s recommended daily intake of vitamin A.In a separate study, they found that an adult-sized serving could do the same for adults.Golden Rice was as good as capsules, and better than spinach, at delivering vitamin A.When Greenpeace found out about the trials, it enlisted the Chinese government to stop them.
It accused the researchers of using the kids as “guinea pigs.” In a letter to Tufts University, which was responsible for the trials, Schubert and 20 other anti-GMO scientists protested: Our greatest concern is that this rice, which is engineered to overproduce beta carotene, has never been tested in animals, and there is an extensive medical literature showing that retinoids that can be derived from beta carotene are both toxic and cause birth defects.
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In these circumstances the use of human subjects (including children who are already suffering illness as a result of Vitamin A deficiency) for GM feeding experiments is completely unacceptable.For all the scare talk about beta carotene, Schubert and his colleagues never mentioned the kids who were given beta carotene capsules in the studies.In a letter to the Daily Mail, six scientists wrote, “The experiments were no more dangerous than feeding the children a small carrot since the levels of beta-carotene and related compounds in Golden Rice are similar The most important advantage of essay writing help, which should be paper essay on the cambridge school of historiography business plan writers in ga criminal of being vegetarian essay for cheap online the best custom writing service write my essay on gm food do my literature review about ron franscell for cheap .In a letter to the Daily Mail, six scientists wrote, “The experiments were no more dangerous than feeding the children a small carrot since the levels of beta-carotene and related compounds in Golden Rice are similar.
” But anti-GMO groups were determined to discredit the studies.They discovered that although the consent forms given to the children’s parents said Golden Rice “makes beta carotene,” the forms didn’t specify that this had been achieved through gene transfer 11 Mar 2018 - alt=”help me write my custom public relations essay Business Premium 80 pages” Almost should i order Premium A4 (British/European) certainly, The web-site pertaining to Amazon . com.web is an exceptional However while checking where to get a college writing services gm food essay Business .
They discovered that although the consent forms given to the children’s parents said Golden Rice “makes beta carotene,” the forms didn’t specify that this had been achieved through gene transfer.
Its press release titled “Greenpeace alarmed at US-backed GMO experiments on children” quoted a Greenpeace official in Asia: “The next ‘golden rice’ guinea pigs might be Filipino children 11 Mar 2018 - alt=”help me write my custom public relations essay Business Premium 80 pages” Almost should i order Premium A4 (British/European) certainly, The web-site pertaining to Amazon . com.web is an exceptional However while checking where to get a college writing services gm food essay Business .Its press release titled “Greenpeace alarmed at US-backed GMO experiments on children” quoted a Greenpeace official in Asia: “The next ‘golden rice’ guinea pigs might be Filipino children.Should we allow ourselves to be subjects in a human experiment?” In another press release, Greenpeace questioned whether the Chinese parents were “properly informed of the risks.” Yet in the same statements, Greenpeace praised the Philippines for administering vitamin A to pregnant women and for putting beta carotene in the food supply.Eventually, Tufts commissioned three reviews of the clinical trials.
Two were internal; the third was external.The findings, released in 2013, confirmed that the reviews had “identified concerns” about “inadequate explanation of the genetically-modified nature of Golden Rice.” But the more important verdict was that “the study data were validated and no health or safety concerns were identified.” The university explained: These multiple reviews found no concerns related to the integrity of the study data, the accuracy of the research results or the safety of the research subjects.In fact, the study indicated that a single serving of the test product, Golden Rice, could provide greater than 50 percent of the recommended daily intake of vitamin A in these children, which could significantly improve health outcomes if adopted as a dietary regimen.
This verdict didn’t suit opponents of Golden Rice.For 16 years they’ve ignored every fact or finding that doesn’t fit their story.Their enmity is unappeasable; their alarmism is unfalsifiable.In 2006, scientists found no allergens among the proteins in Golden Rice.The critics refused to accept this finding.They said climate change could undermine the rice’s “genetic stability.” They claimed that unforeseen environmental interactions could cause unintended changes in the rice after several generations, and therefore, regulators should indefinitely delay its approval.
The critics openly advocate unattainable standards.ISIS says the “instability of transgenic lines” makes “proper safety assessment well nigh impossible.” Greenpeace says of Golden Rice: It would not be a surprise if additional unexpected changes in the plant occurred, posing new risks to the environment or human health.… However, it is virtually impossible to look for unexpected effects—by definition, one cannot know what these effects might be, or where to look for them! And these standards apply only to GMOs.They don’t apply to alternatives favored by the anti-GMO movement.
Three years ago Greenpeace recommended marker-assisted selection—essentially, breeding guided by genetic analysis—as a better way to increase levels of beta carotene and other nutrients.One argument quoted in the Greenpeace report was that genetic engineering caused “unpredictable integration sites, copy numbers and often spontaneous rearrangements and losses”—in short, that it screwed up the DNA of the altered organism.Shortly afterward, a study found that Greenpeace had it backward: In rice, marker-assisted selection caused more genetic and functional disruption than genetic engineering did.Nevertheless, Greenpeace continues to claim that genetic engineering, unlike marker-assisted selection, creates “novel traits with novel hazards.
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” There are other criticisms of GMOs, and one of them is worth your attention.
There’s no end to the arguments and demands of anti-GMO watchdogs.They want more studies—“systematic trials with different cooking processes”—to see how much vitamin A the rice delivers Genetically modified food controversies are disputes over the use of foods and other goods The key areas of controversy related to genetically modified food (GM food or The UK trial suggested that the diversity of birds could be adversely affected by The AMA said that even voluntary labeling is misleading unless .They want more studies—“systematic trials with different cooking processes”—to see how much vitamin A the rice delivers.
They want studies to assess how much beta carotene the rice loses when stored at various temperatures.If the rice delivers enough vitamin A, they say that’s a problem, too, because people won’t feel the need to eat other plants and will consequently develop other kinds of malnutrition Should i purchase gm food essay plagiarism-free Business A4 (British/European) 14 days 123 pages / 33825 words.If the rice delivers enough vitamin A, they say that’s a problem, too, because people won’t feel the need to eat other plants and will consequently develop other kinds of malnutrition.They claim that criminals will counterfeit the rice, using yellow spices or naturally yellow grains, so people will think they’re getting vitamin A when they aren’t.
Sixteen years after it was invented, Golden Rice still isn’t commercially available .Sixteen years after it was invented, Golden Rice still isn’t commercially available.Two years ago anti-GMO activists destroyed a field trial of the rice in the Philippines.Last year they filed a petition to block all field tests and feeding studies.Greenpeace boasted, “After more than 10 years of research ‘Golden’ Rice is nowhere near its promise to address Vitamin A Deficiency.5 A Legitimate Concern Up to this point, we’ve been focusing on health concerns about GMOs.The stories of papaya, Bt, and Golden Rice demonstrate, in several ways, that these concerns are unfounded.One thing we’ve learned is that fear of GMOs is unfalsifiable.
Hundreds of studies have been done, and tons of GE food have been eaten.No amount of evidence will convince the doomsayers that GMOs are safe.You can’t live your life clinging to such unappeasable fear.Another thing we’ve learned is that it makes no sense to avoid GMOs based on standards that nobody applies to non-GMO food.
Yes, it’s conceivable that you could overdose on vitamin A or ingest a viral or insecticidal protein from eating fruits, grains, or vegetables.But GMOs don’t make any of these scenarios more likely or more dangerous.In fact, if you look at illness or direct fatalities—or at correlations between food sales and disease trends, which anti-GMO activists like to do—you can make a better case against organic food than against GMOs.A third lesson is that GMO segregation, in the form of labels or GMO-free restaurants, is misguided.GMO labels don’t clarify what’s in your food.
They don’t address the underlying ingredients—pesticides, toxins, proteins—that supposedly make GMOs harmful.They stigmatize food that’s perfectly safe, and they deflect scrutiny from non-GMO products that have the same disparaged ingredients.The people who push GMO labels and GMO-free shopping aren’t informing you or protecting you.They tell food manufacturers, grocery stores, and restaurants to segregate GMOs, and ultimately not to sell them, because people like you won’t buy them.
They tell politicians and regulators to label and restrict GMOs because people like you don’t trust the technology.They use your anxiety to justify GMO labels, and then they use GMO labels to justify your anxiety.Keeping you scared is the key to their political and business strategy.And companies like Chipotle, with their non-GMO marketing campaigns, are playing along.
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But safety isn’t the only concern that’s been raised about GMOs.
There are other criticisms, and one of them is worth your attention.It addresses the world’s most common agricultural application of genetic engineering: herbicide tolerance Need to purchase essay gm food 100% plagiarism-free American AMA Standard College Sophomore.It addresses the world’s most common agricultural application of genetic engineering: herbicide tolerance.
Three-quarters of the corn and cotton grown in this country is engineered to resist insects.These crops have the bacterial Bt gene, which makes them lethal to bugs that eat them Write my persuasive paper essay on the nbsp Casa do Romezal.These crops have the bacterial Bt gene, which makes them lethal to bugs that eat them.Slightly more than that, about 80 percent to 85 percent of corn and cotton, is engineered to withstand weed-killing chemicals, especially glyphosate, which is sold as Roundup Write my persuasive paper essay on the nbsp Casa do Romezal.
Slightly more than that, about 80 percent to 85 percent of corn and cotton, is engineered to withstand weed-killing chemicals, especially glyphosate, which is sold as Roundup.
(The two traits are usually packaged together camin.ir/essay/where-to-find-business-studies-essay-us-letter-size-business-writing-plagiarism-free.(The two traits are usually packaged together.Worldwide, insect-resistant crops are grown on about 50 percent of the land allotted to GMOs, while herbicide-tolerant crops are grown on more than 80 percent.Both applications are considered pesticidal, because weeds, like bugs, are pests.And this is crucial to understanding the debate over whether GMOs, as a whole, have raised or lowered the level of pesticide use.
One study, published in 2012 by Charles Benbrook, the most sensible critic of GMOs, calculates that GMOs increased pesticide use in the United States by 7 percent.An international analysis of multiple studies, published last year, calculates that GMOs decreased pesticide use by 37 percent.But the two assessments agree on a fundamental distinction: While bug-resistant GMOs have led to lower use of insecticides, herbicide-tolerant GMOs have led to higher use of weedkillers.Two factors seem to account for the herbicide increase.
One is direct: If your crops are engineered to withstand Roundup, you can spray it profusely without killing them.
The other factor is indirect: When every farmer sprays Roundup, weeds adapt to a Roundup-saturated world.To kill these herbicide-resistant strains, farmers spray more weedkillers.Despite an ongoing debate about the effects of glyphosate, experts agree that it’s relatively benign.
Benbrook has called it one of the safest herbicides on the market.He concludes: “In light of its generally favorable environmental and toxicological properties, especially compared to some of the herbicides displaced by glyphosate, the dramatic increase in glyphosate use has likely not markedly increased human health risks.First, by pooling the data, Chipotle has hidden half of what Benbrook found: that Bt crops reduced insecticide use and thereby, in terms of their contribution to the bottom line, reduced the combined use of pest-killing chemicals.
And second, the problem that’s driving the herbicide arms race isn’t genetic engineering.Everyone who has studied the problem carefully—Benbrook, the USDA, the National Research Council—comes to the same conclusion: By relying too much on one method of weed control, we’ve helped weeds evolve to defeat it.To confound evolution, you have to make evolutionary pressures less predictable.That means switching herbicides so weeds that develop resistance to one herbicide will be killed by another.
It also means alternating crops, so weeds have to compete with different plants and grow under different tilling, watering, and harvest conditions.Industry and regulators, belatedly, are beginning to address this problem.As part of its product approval and renewal process, the EPA, backed by the USDA, is requiring producers of herbicides and herbicide-tolerant crops to monitor and report use of their chemicals, work with farmers to control excessive use, and promote non-herbicidal weed control methods.Herbicide-tolerant crops let farmers spray weedkillers more often and more thoroughly without harming their crops.
It’s no accident that Monsanto, which sells Roundup-ready seeds, also sells Roundup.
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But GMOs didn’t invent monoculture, and banning them won’t make it go away.Farmers have been cultivating homogeneity for millennia.Roundup has been used for more than 40 years An argumentative essay about gmos: Math division homework help Write an essay on british drama in the twentieth century nuclear energy research to buy essays online my wonderful day essay an essay about happiness hire someone to Custom research paper year essay annual sports meet nelliady ocd research .Roundup has been used for more than 40 years.
Chipotle illustrates the folly of renouncing GMOs in the name of herbicide control.
According to its new policy, “All corn-based ingredients in Chipotle’s food that formerly may have been genetically modified have been removed or replaced with non-GMO versions, while all soy-derived ingredients that may have been genetically modified were replaced with alternatives, such as rice bran oil and sunflower oil.” But shifting to sunflower oil is demonstrably counterproductive Best websites to write an gm food essay US Letter Size Sophomore Premium ASA.” But shifting to sunflower oil is demonstrably counterproductive.As NPR’s Dan Charles points out, “many sunflower varieties, while not genetically modified, also are herbicide-tolerant how to purchase a college international affairs presentation 5 days Platinum Custom writing.As NPR’s Dan Charles points out, “many sunflower varieties, while not genetically modified, also are herbicide-tolerant.They were bred to tolerate a class of herbicides called ALS inhibitors.And since farmers start ed relying on those herbicides, many weeds have evolved resistance to them.
In fact, many more weeds have become resistant to ALS inhibitors than to glyphosate.” That’s just one example of how tricky it is to assess the effects of swearing off GMOs.Roundup isn’t the only herbicide, genetic engineering isn’t the only technology that creates herbicide tolerance, and your health (which is no more likely to be affected by a given herbicide in GE food than in non-GE food) is just one of many factors to consider.To judge the environmental wisdom of switching from a GMO to a non-GMO product, you’d have to know which pesticides each product involves and how those pesticides affect species that live where the crops are grown.You’d also have to consider the environmental benefits of agricultural efficiency.By making cropland more productive, with less output lost to weeds and insects, GMOs reduce the amount of land that has to be farmed and the amount of water that’s wasted.Herbicide-tolerant crops even mitigate climate change by reducing the need to till fields, which erodes soil and releases greenhouse gases.The more you learn about herbicide resistance, the more you come to understand how complicated the truth about GMOs is.First you discover that they aren’t evil.
Then you learn that they aren’t perfectly innocent.Then you realize that nothing is perfectly innocent.The best you can do is measure each practice against the alternatives.The least you can do is look past a three-letter label.6 Better GMOs Twenty years after the debut of genetically engineered food, it’s a travesty that the technology’s commercial applications are still so focused on old-fashioned weedkillers.
Greenpeace and Chipotle think the logical response to this travesty is to purge GMOs.
The relentless efforts of Luddites to block testing, regulatory approval, and commercial development of GMOs are major reasons why more advanced GE products, such as Golden Rice, are still unavailable.The best way to break the herbicide industry’s grip on genetic engineering is to support the technology and push it forward, by telling policymakers, food manufacturers, and seed companies that you want better GMOs.Top Comment What annoys me about this debate is that the people who hold this anti-GMO view also tend to be staunch environmentalists.-Umphlove The USDA’s catalog of recently engineered plants shows plenty of worthwhile options.The list includes drought-tolerant corn, virus-resistant plums, non-browning apples, potatoes with fewer natural toxins, and soybeans that produce less saturated fat.Food and Agriculture Organization discusses other projects in the pipeline: virus-resistant beans, heat-tolerant sugarcane, salt-tolerant wheat, disease-resistant cassava, high-iron rice, and cotton that requires less nitrogen fertilizer.
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Skim the news, and you’ll find scientists at work on more ambitious ideas: high-calcium carrots, antioxidant tomatoes, nonallergenic nuts, bacteria-resistant oranges, water-conserving wheat, corn and cassava loaded with extra nutrients, and a flaxlike plant that produces the healthy oil formerly available only in fish.That’s what genetic engineering can do for health and for our planet.The reason it hasn’t is that we’ve been stuck in a stupid, wasteful fight over GMOs Custom law essay writing services - lit review writing service just $/page. Order any type of academic paper on any topic, and we will find the best expert for you. Essay Pros and cons of gm foods dissertation services in uk law thesis customer coursework and dissertations online from our expert british writers in the uk; .The reason it hasn’t is that we’ve been stuck in a stupid, wasteful fight over GMOs.
On one side is an army of quacks and pseudo-environmentalists waging a leftist war on science.On the other side are corporate cowards who would rather stick to profitable weed-killing than invest in products that might offend a suspicious public As the number severity and diversity of natural and human made nbsp.
On the other side are corporate cowards who would rather stick to profitable weed-killing than invest in products that might offend a suspicious public.
The only way to end this fight is to educate ourselves and make it clear to everyone—European governments, trend-setting grocers, fad-hopping restaurant chains, research universities, and biotechnology investors—that we’re ready, as voters and consumers, to embrace nutritious, environmentally friendly food, no matter where it got its genes As the number severity and diversity of natural and human made nbsp.The only way to end this fight is to educate ourselves and make it clear to everyone—European governments, trend-setting grocers, fad-hopping restaurant chains, research universities, and biotechnology investors—that we’re ready, as voters and consumers, to embrace nutritious, environmentally friendly food, no matter where it got its genes.Thanks to Slate interns Lydia Bailey, Jareema Hylton, Natania Levy, and Greer Prettyman for their help with this project.Support Slate’s unique voice and the work we do: Join Slate Plus.
Your membership benefits us—and benefits you with early access to future longform stories, as well as bonus supplemental content and a host of other extras.Essay cheat companies face university ban By Judith Burns BBC News 9 October 2017 Close share panel Image copyright Getty Images The universities watchdog has announced a clampdown on "essay mills" which help students cheat to gain their degrees.An investigation last year by the Quality Assurance Agency found hundreds of companies were producing work for students to pass off as their own.The companies charge from as little as £15 to almost £7,000 for a PhD dissertation, the QAA found.
Universities minister Jo Johnson says new guidelines will help prevent "unacceptable and pernicious" cheating.He asked the QAA to produce the guidelines, which urge universities to ban essay mills from advertising on campus and block their websites use software to spot changes in students' personal writing styles make clear that cheats could miss out on their qualifications help struggling students with their writing and study skills include students on academic policy and misconduct panels improve support for whistleblowers Mr Johnson said this form of cheating "not only undermines standards in our world-class universities, but devalues the hard-earned qualifications of those who don't cheat and can even, when it leads to graduates practising with inadequate professional skills, endanger the lives of others".And QAA chief executive Douglas Blackstock said it was important that students were not "duped by these unscrupulous essay companies"."Paying someone else to write essays is wrong and could damage their career," he said.'Overwhelming' pressure Last year there were posters advertising essay writing services at London Underground stations near universities, and another company was distributing flyers to students on the Queen Mary University of London campus.
The National Union of Students is launching its own campaign against essay cheats.Amatey Doku, NUS vice-president for higher education, said some students were turning to essay mills because the pressure to get the highest grades when they faced debts of £50,000 was often "overwhelming".He said some were having to spend so much time earning money to pay for their studies that time for academic work was squeezed."Many websites play on the vulnerabilities and anxieties of students, particularly homing in on students' fears that their academic English and their referencing may not be good enough."Making money by exploiting these anxieties is disgusting.
" Universities UK, which represents vice-chancellors, helped produce the guidance and welcomed its publication.A spokesman said universities were increasingly engaging with students "from day one" to underline the risks of cheating and to support struggling students."Universities have severe penalties for students found to be submitting work that is not their own," he said."Such academic misconduct is a breach of an institution's disciplinary regulations and can result in students, in serious cases, being expelled from the university." Are you a student? Have you used an essay writing service? We'd like to hear from you.
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